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Safety Manual

“Play Hard, Play Safe”

League ID # 04055718
California District 57
District Administrator – Dave Wetmore
Little League 2019

PLL Telephone Directory 4
Introduction 6
ASAP: What is it? 7
PLL and the ASAP Program 7
Volunteer Application 7
Expectations and Responsibilities 9
2018 Expectation Contracts 9
Skills Training for Managers and Coaches 10
PLL Safety Code 11
Field Conditions Appropriate for Safe Play 11
General Safety Rules for Practices/Games 11
Batting Cage Rules 12
Emergency/Accident Reporting Procedure 12 
Safety Equipment 13
Pre-Practice and Pre-Game Safety Issues 14
Insuring Safe Play on the Field 17
Health Tips for Baseball 19
Teach Safe Sliding Techniques 19
Advanced Sliding Techniques 21
Keep Your Players Hydrated 21
Lightning Safety Procedures 22
General Safety Rules 24
General Accident Prevention 24
Bicycle Safety Rules 24
For Parents and Players at the PLL Fields 25
First-Aid 26
What is First-Aid? 26
Calling for Emergency Medical Assistance 26
First-Aid Kits 26
Good Samaritan Immunity 26
Communicable Disease Safeguards 27
Treating Baseball Related Injuries 29
How to Recognize a Heart Attack 29
How to Recognize Cardiac Arrest 29
How to Perform CPR (on Adults) 31
How to Perform CPR (on Children) 33
Heimlich Maneuver 35
Eye Injuries 37
Shock 39
Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke 40
Heat Cramps 40
Heat Exhaustion 41
Heat Stroke 41
Broken Bones 43
Tooth Injuries 44
Avulsion (Tooth Knocked Out Entirely) 44
Fracture 44
Luxation (Tooth in Socket but in Wrong Position) 44
Asthma 46
Sprains and Strains 47
Wound Care 48
Nosebleed 50
Bee Stings 50
Snack Bar Safety 51
Snack Bar Guidelines 51
Before You Start Your Snack Bar Shift 52
Accident Reporting Procedures 53
When to Report 53
How to Report 53
What to Report 53
Follow-up by the PLL Safety Officer 53
Medical Release Requirements 54
Storage Shed Procedures 55
Appendix 56
2018 Forms 56

In Case of an Emergency
Dial 911

Pleasanton Police Department
Phone (925) 931-5100

PLL Board of Directors

President Peter Easton [email protected] 
VP League Don Graver [email protected] 
VP Operations Kevin Mattos [email protected] 
VP Upper Division Craig LeMessieur [email protected] 
Secretary Steve Rogers [email protected] 
Treasurer Johnny Williams [email protected] 
Managers Rep James Wetzig [email protected] 
Player Agent Casey Hammonds [email protected] 
UIC Doug Farmer [email protected] 
Safety Kevin Duggan [email protected] 
Registrar Paul Lance [email protected] 
Marketing Mike Nobles [email protected] 
Training Cliff Donnelley [email protected]
Field Manager Mike Paden [email protected] 
Discipline Andrea Leggett [email protected] 

The risks associated with youth baseball are not well appreciated. In April 2001, the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness published a policy statement on baseball injuries in children. The report compiled some sobering statistics on the threat of injury to children participating in organized baseball programs.
“The overall incidence of injury in baseball ranges between 2% and 8% of participants per year. Among children 5 to 14 years of age, an estimated 162,000 baseball, softball, and tee-ball injuries were treated in emergency departments in 1995. The number of injuries generally increased with age, with a peak incidence at 12 years. Of the injuries, 26% were fractures and 37% were contusions and abrasions. The remainder were strains, sprains, concussions, internal injuries, and dental injuries.
The potential for catastrophic injury resulting from direct contact with a bat, baseball, or softball exists. Deaths have occurred from impact to the head resulting in intracranial bleeding and from blunt chest impact, probably causing ventricular fibrillation or asystole (commotio cordis). Children 5 to 15 years of age seem to be uniquely vulnerable to blunt chest impact because their thoraces may be more elastic and more easily compressed. Statistics compiled by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission indicate that there were 88 baseball-related deaths to children in this age group between 1973 and 1995, an average of about 4 per year. This average has not changed since 1973. Of these, 43% were from direct-ball impact with the chest (commotio cordis); 24% were from direct-ball contact with the head; 15% were from impacts from bats; 10% were from direct contact with a ball impacting the neck, ears, or throat; and in 8%, the mechanism of injury was unknown.
“Direct contact by the ball is the most frequent cause of death and serious injury in baseball.” Recognizing these risks, the Pleasanton Little League (“PLL”) has joined with Little League Baseball, Inc. and leagues throughout the country in making a commitment to safety through the ASAP program.
In 1995, Little League Baseball introduced ASAP (“A Safety Awareness Program”). The mission of ASAP is: “To create awareness, through education and information, of the opportunities to provide a safer environment for kids and all participants of Little League Baseball.”
The PLL recognizes the importance of the ASAP program through the appointment of a Safety Officer to the PLL Board of Directors and the implementation of safety measures that are designed to make playing baseball at PLL a safer and more enjoyable experience for players, Managers, Coaches, Parents and Spectators.  This manual is offered as a tool to place important safety information at the fingertips of PLL volunteers. Please familiarize yourself with its contents, and keep a copy handy for easy reference.
As part of ASAP, the PLL is required to submit a completed Safety Plan to Little League Baseball, Inc. by February 15, 2019 explaining the steps we have taken and plan to take to become a safer league. By participating in the ASAP program, we gain the satisfaction of knowing we have made it safer for our children to play baseball by:
• Putting together comprehensive first-aid kits for use at each playing field.
• Running background checks on all PLL volunteers in accordance with the guidelines established by Little League Baseball, Inc.
• Requiring all Managers to inspect the playing field prior to every practice and game and report promptly any defects or safety concerns to the League President, Safety Director, or Fields Director.
• 2019 PLL Board Members will become certified in First Aid, CPR and AED (Automated External Defibrillator).
The PLL is proud of the commitment it has made to make the ASAP program a success and appreciates the support its efforts have received from Managers, Coaches, players, and parents. Little League Baseball, Inc. has promulgated rules designed to ensure that children participating in Little League programs are protected from individuals who would abuse or exploit children in any way. [See Official Regulations, I.(b) and I.(c)].
The 2019 Regulations provide that:
“As a condition of service to the league, all managers, coaches, Board of Director members and any other persons, volunteers or hired workers, who provide regular service to the league and/or have repetitive access to, or contact with players or teams, must complete and submit an official ‘Little League Volunteer Application’ to the local league president. Annual background screening must be completed prior to the applicant assuming his/her duties for the current season. Refusal to annually submit a fully completed ‘Little League Volunteer Application’ must result in the immediate dismissal of the individual from the local league.” [Official Regulations, I.(b)].
The Regulations further state that “No local league shall permit any person to participate in any manner, whose background check reveals a conviction for any crime involving or against a minor. A local league may prohibit any individual from participating as a volunteer or hired worker, if the league deems the individual unfit to work with minors.” [Official Regulations, I.(c) (9)].
A league’s failure to comply with these Regulations may result in the “suspension or revocation of tournament privileges and/or the local league’s charter by action of the Charter or Tournament Committee in Williamsport.” [Official Regulations, I.(c)(8)].
The PLL President, Peter Easton, is required to maintain the applications, at a minimum, for the duration of the applicant’s service to the league for this year. The results of any background check by the PLL will be held in the strictest confidence.
Additional information regarding Little League Baseball’s background checks is available

2019 Expectation Contracts
For Managers, Coaches, and League Officials: 
In addition to the Volunteer Application, PLL Managers, Coaches, and League Officials are required to sign a form enumerating their responsibilities and the PLL expectations of them. Copies will be distributed to Managers during the Safety Meeting and must be returned to the PLL President, who will retain the originals in the PLL files.
All Managers, Coaches and League Officials have the responsibility:
• To make sure that the playing environment is safe and supportive for children learning new and improving existing baseball skills.
• To read, understand and follow all Little League rules and regulations, including those outlined in the PLL Safety Manual.
• To attend District coaching and/or PLL training programs offered by Little League to acquire as much knowledge as possible of baseball skills and strategies.
• To attend scheduled PLL meetings and functions as appropriate to your position.
• To bring the Little League Baseball Official Playing Rules to every game.
• To have the Emergency Telephone Number wallet card in your possession at all practices and games.
• To have, in your possession at all practices and games, the players’ registration forms that list physician contact information and treatment authorization if an injury should occur.
• To have a fully charged cellular telephone with which to make emergency
• calls in your possession or confirm its availability at all practices and games.
• To be alert to potential hazards on or around the field, and to take action
• immediately to address those hazards, to the extent possible. The playing field must be inspected by the Manager or Coach prior to every practice and game.
• To notify the PLL Safety Officer, Kevin Duggan, within 48 hours, of any incident that causes any player, manager, coach, umpire or volunteer to receive medical treatment or first aid, per the PLL Safety Plan.
• To take immediate action if any player, Manager, Coach, umpire, official or spectator puts anyone at risk of harm or injury or inflicts injury on anyone (mental or physical), intended or not. If the Manager or Coach believes a player has intentionally injured another player during practice or a game, that player is to be immediately suspended from play until such time as the PLL Board of Directors has reviewed the incident and made a decision regarding the player.
• To file a report of any such incident to the PLL President, Peter Easton, within 24 hours.
• To enforce the Little League ban on smoking in or around the dugouts and on the ball fields and drinking of alcoholic beverages on park grounds.
• To supervise the care and use of all PLL equipment and uniforms and to regularly inspect the equipment to make sure that they are safe for use.
• At the T-Ball, Farm Ball, and Rookie Minor levels, to use only Incredi-Balls at all practices and games.
• To confirm that all male players at the Senior, Junior, Major, and Minor Leagues are appropriately equipped with hard cups along with the athletic supporters required by Little League rules.
• To complete the end of the season evaluation forms. Managers and Coaches are also expected:
• As a representative of the PLL, to be courteous, helpful, and always respectful of one’s players, umpires, and opposing teams. Model this behavior for your players and spectators.
• To be encouraging at all times of one’s own team players and those of other teams. Be positive and respect each child as an individual; strive to understand each child’s skills and abilities as well as potential, and set reasonable expectations for each child’s play.
• To be physically and mentally fit to lead and teach players at all practices and games.
• To be as organized and ready for each practice and game as possible so that the players will benefit the most from your leadership.
• To supply information as necessary to complete your background check.
• To be prepared for emergencies of any kind, as a responsible adult in charge of children.
• To assist in the clean up of the field and stands after every game, and to drag the field after every game and every practice (where and when appropriate).  Skills Training for Managers and Coaches 

PLL expects Managers and Coaches to familiarize themselves with the fundamentals and skills needed by young players to play the game not only better but also more safely. This year, the PLL will be offering online training through the National CPR Foundation 
The PLL has adopted a number of safety procedures that incorporate the Safety Code of Little League Baseball, Inc. as well as additional safety measures that have been recommended as part of the ASAP program.
Responsibility for safety procedures in the PLL rests with the Safety Officer, who is appointed to the Board of Directors to oversee and manage the ASAP program. For the 2019 season, the PLL Safety Officer is Kevin Duggan. In the event of an accident or injury to a player, Manager, Coach or spectator, you must notify the Safety Officer within 48 hours.
The Little League Safety Code recommends that arrangements be made in advance of all games and practices for emergency medical services. For the 2018 season, the PLL Safety Officer has discussed safety issues and concerns, including response times, with emergency personnel for the Pleasanton Fire District, which have jurisdiction over the PLL fields.
The following rules and guidelines are designed to make both practices and games as safe as possible for the players and coaching staffs of each team. Please familiarize yourself with them before your first practice as adherence to these rules is expected and required of all PLL Managers and Coaches.
Field Conditions Appropriate for Safe Play
• No games or practices should be held when weather or field conditions are not favorable, particularly when lighting is inadequate.
• The fields should be inspected frequently for holes, stones, glass, and other potentially dangerous conditions. Prior to each game, the Manager of each team is required to inspect the field and promptly report any dangerous conditions to the PLL Safety Officer (Kevin Duggan, 925-250-7602) or President (Peter Easton 925-204-4268).
• A Pre-Game Checklist for this purpose is included in the Appendix.
• Although thunderstorms are uncommon in Alameda County, they do occur. At the first sign of such a storm, everyone should leave the field and seek shelter. (See page 22 for further details.). General Safety Rules for Practices/Games
• During both practices and games, all team equipment should be stored within the team dugout, or behind screens, and not within the area defined by the umpires as “in play.”
• Only players, Managers, Coaches, and umpires are permitted on the playing field or in the dugout during practice sessions and games.
• During games, the responsibility for keeping bats and loose equipment off the field of play should be that of each player or the team’s Manager and Coaches.
• Foul balls that are batted out of the playing area should be retrieved by an adult or responsible child and returned to the umpire responsible for the game. At no time should there be a scramble for the ball
• During practices and games, players should be alert and watching the batter on each pitch.
• During warm-up drills, players should be spaced so that no one is endangered by wild throws or missed catches.
• All pre-game warm-ups (i.e., playing catch, pepper, swinging bats, etc.) should be performed within the confines of the playing field and not within areas that are frequented by spectators.
• When a pitcher is warming up in the bullpen or along the side of the field during a game or batting practice, there must be a player with a batting helmet and glove stationed between the batter and the pitcher and catcher to field balls hit in their direction.
• Managers or Coaches cannot warm up a pitcher during practices or before or during a game. [Rule 3.09]. This includes standing at the backstop during practices acting as an informal catcher for batting practice.
• Soft toss drills using baseballs against any chain link fence is not permitted.
• During games, offensive players must remain in the dugout throughout the game. If only one adult Manager or Coach is present for a given game, he or she may not serve as a base coach. [Rule 4.05(2)].
• Players must not pick up a bat while in the dugout until they are ready to bat.
• There is no on-deck circle except in the Juniors and Seniors Divisions. [Rule 1.08, Note 1]. Only the first batter of each half inning is permitted outside the dugout between half innings in the Major, Minor, Rookie Minor, Farm, and T-Ball leagues. [Rule 1.08, Note 2]. Players at the Junior and Senior League levels should be alert of the area around them when swinging a bat while in the on deck position.
• Headfirst slides are not permitted in the Major, Minor, Rookie Minor, Farm, and T-Ball leagues, except when returning to a base. [Rule 7.08(a)(4)].
• Sliding should be introduced at the Rookie Minors level and practiced regularly at every level thereafter.
• Except in the Juniors and Seniors, shoes with metal spikes are not permitted. Shoes with molded cleats are permissible. [Rule 1.11(h)].
• At no time should “horse play” be permitted on the playing field.
Batting Cage Rules
• Batting cage may be used only under adult supervision.
• Batters must wear helmets at all times.
• Only one batter at a time allowed in cage unless picking up balls.
• No practice swings or holding bats outside the cage.
• Do not play soft-toss into the side of the batting cage.
• Observe assigned time limit.
• No climbing on batting cage.
• Only approved PLL league volunteers can pitch in the cage.
• Keep batting cage door closed when in use.
Emergency/Accident Reporting Procedures
• Give first-aid and have someone call 911 immediately if necessary (e.g. neck/head injury, not breathing).
• Ask someone to find or call parent(s)/guardian.
• Within 12 hours of any incident requiring first-aid or medical treatment, fill out Incident/Injury Tracking Form which can be found at: Call or email PLL Safety Officer Kevin Duggan; [email protected]; 925-250-7602.
Safety Equipment
• Equipment should be inspected regularly for the condition of the equipment as well as for proper fit. If any of your equipment needs to be repaired or replaced, please contact the Acting Equipment Manager, VP Operations, Kevin Mattos (925) 989-5542
• Each team is provided with batting helmets (7 for Juniors/Seniors) that must meet NOCSAE (National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment) specifications and bear the NOCSAE stamp and an exterior warning label.  Helmets may not be painted and may not contain tape or decals unless approved in writing by the helmet manufacturer. [Rule 1.16]. If a player elects to use a personal helmet, it must also meet Little League standards.
• Use of the helmet by the batter, all base runners, and youth base coaches is mandatory. Use of a helmet by an adult base coach is optional. [Rule 1.16]. 
• In the Major, Minor, Rookie Minor and Farm Leagues, each team is provided with a specified number of helmets with safety faceguards. Players should be encouraged to use these during practices and games.
• All male players are required to wear athletic supporters. [Rule 1.17]. The PLL additionally requires all male players in the Seniors, Juniors, Majors, and Minors to wear a plastic protective cup for all practices and games.
• Male catchers must wear a metal, fiber or plastic cup. [Rule 1.17].
• All male catchers must wear a chest protector. Female catchers must wear a long or short model chest protector. Junior/Senior catchers must wear an approved long or short model chest protector. [Rule 1.17].
• All catchers must wear chest protectors with a neck collar, “dangling” type throat guard, shin guards, and catcher’s helmet with mask, all of which meet Little League specifications and standards. The catcher’s helmet must meet NOCSAE specifications and standards. Skull caps are not permitted. [Rule 1.17].
• All catchers must wear a catcher’s helmet and mask with a “dangling” type throat protector during infield/outfield practice, pitcher warm-up in the bullpen, and games. [Rule 1.17].
• All catchers must use a catcher’s mitt (not a first baseman’s mitt or fielder’s glove) of any shape, size or weight consistent with protecting the hand. [Rule 1.12].
• Parents of players who wear glasses should be encouraged to provide “safety glasses.”
• Players must not wear watches, rings, pins, jewelry or other metallic items during games and practices. However, jewelry that alerts medical personnel to a specific condition is permissible. [Rule 1.11(j)].
• Casts may not be worn during practices or games. [Rule 1.11(k)].
Pre-Practice and Pre-Game Safety Issues
Safety considerations begin long before the first pitch of the game. Before a practice or game, you need to ask yourself:
Have you brought your Registration/Medical Treatment Consent forms with you?
• The Manager of every team must bring these to every practice and game. The Registration forms provide essential contact information for the parents and physicians of every player.
• The Medical Treatment Consent forms are required for you to obtain medical care for a player in the absence of his/her parents. We have been advised by Pleasanton Fire Dept personnel that if they respond to an emergency call, they cannot treat a player in the absence of a parent unless you have the Consent form in your possession or the child is suffering from a life threatening or limb threatening injury. Thus, if you neglect to bring these forms with you to your practices and games, you are placing players at risk. 
• In the event the Manager is unavailable and has delegated his/her responsibilities to a Coach, the Manager is responsible for providing the Coach with copies of these forms.
Do you have a fully charged cell phone available for emergency calls?
• If an emergency occurs, you will need to use a cell phone at most fields to reach the Emergency Dispatch Center (911). The Snack Bar has a land line phone that patches directly to the local 911 Center. 911 calls made from a cell phone are patched to the California Highway Patrol.
• Pleasanton Police Dispatch: 925-931-5100
• Make sure you have a fully charged cell phone that will work on the fields where you practice and play your games since some phones do not work in certain locations on the Pleasanton Fields. If an emergency occurs, you will want to call for aid immediately.
Have you inspected the field for hazardous conditions?
• Since our practices and games are scheduled at fields that are generally open to the public, you are required before both practices and games to inspect the field for holes, damage, stones, glass and other conditions that could make playing there dangerous. A
checklist is included in the Appendix.
• If you find a condition that needs to be addressed, please contact the Safety Officer (Kevin Duggan 925-250-7602, or the PLL President (Peter Easton 925-204-4268).
Is your equipment safe and in conformance with Little League specifications?
• Check your equipment frequently.
• Run your hands along bats to make sure there are no dents or slivers.  Cracked or broken bats should never be used.
• Check the batting helmets to make sure they are not cracked. Every helmet must have the NOCSAE stamp and an exterior warning label. [Rule 1.16]. If any of your helmets are missing these or they are cracked, they must not be used and should be returned to PLL promptly so that they can be replaced.
• Constant attention must be given to the proper fit of personal protective equipment, including batting helmets, masks, catcher’s chest protectors, and catcher’s shin guards. Do not permit a player to take the field with ill-fitting protective equipment.
Have you had your players warm-up and stretch before they begin to play?
• Before both practices and games, it is a good idea to have your players warm-up and stretch prior to throwing.
• A jog around the field should be used first to warm-up the entire body. Then you should focus on warming up the arms and shoulder muscles (e.g., big arm/small arm circles forward and back) before stretching the arm muscles. Don't forget to stretch the hamstrings, quadriceps, calves, and Achilles tendons. Sample stretches are illustrated on page 16.
• The purpose of stretching is to increase flexibility within the various muscle groups and prevent tearing from overexertion. Remember, during stretching, you should contract (i.e. tighten) the muscle and then relax it before stretching further. Hold the stretch for at least 10 seconds. You should never "bounce" during any stretch, as this can tear the muscle tissue.
Have you placed your players far enough apart during their warm-up throws to prevent injuries?
• After your players have stretched, they generally will warm up their throwing arms by playing catch with a partner. This should always be done with one set of players standing along the outfield foul line and their partners standing at a reasonable distance toward center field.
• Please make sure that each pair is spaced far enough away from the players on either side that errant throws will not find an easy target.
• Always remind players who need to walk behind other players who are playing catch to pay attention to the thrown ball.
Are your male players properly equipped?
• The PLL now requires every male player in the Minors, Majors, Juniors, and Seniors to wear both an athletic supporter and a protective cup. Make sure your players are properly equipped before they step on the playing field.
Insuring Safe Play on the Field
Once play begins, there are a number of other safety issues you need to consider:
Have you minimized the risk of players being hit by the ball?
• During your practices, you need to stress to all players that they need to keep their eye on the ball at all times, whether they are in the field or at bat. This safe practice should be drilled into them so continuously that it becomes a reflective action.
• Batters must be taught at an early stage how to avoid being hit by a wild pitch.  The proper approach is to have the batter turn away from the pitch, toward the backstop, with his/her head down and protected by their shoulders. A ball that hits a player in the back will still hurt but will do less potential harm than a ball to the head or chest. Be particularly aware of the potential for commotio cordis when there is any blunt trauma to a child’s chest. Practice with whiffle balls so that the proper reaction becomes instinctive, but don’t overemphasize this drill to avoid putting fear in the batter’s head.
• Every batter must wear a properly fitted, NOCSAE approved helmet before stepping on the field.
• Once a batter becomes a base runner, that player should be taught to run outside the foul lines when going from home to first and from third to home, to reduce the chance of being hit by a thrown ball.
• Players who have not demonstrated a measure of control with their throws should never be permitted to pitch to other players.
• Throwing/catching drills should be set up to minimize the risk that a thrown ball can hit a player who is focused on catching/throwing another ball.
• Help your players learn to judge fly balls by using drills that start out easy and become more difficult as the player’s judgment and skill improves. Use whiffle balls in the lower leagues to develop confidence.
Have you taught your players safe bat handling techniques?
• Younger players need to be taught not to throw the bat after hitting the ball. This can be done by having the player drop the bat in a marked-off circle near where the running starts or calling the player out in practice whenever he/she fails to drop the bat correctly.
• Players should never be permitted to pick up or handle a bat in the dugout until they are headed out to the plate or, in the Juniors and Seniors, on deck circle.
• The on deck circle in the Juniors and Seniors should be located behind a screen. All players and adults should be trained to walk around the on deck circle, whether it is in use or not.
• No player should ever approach a player who is holding a bat from behind without letting him/her know of his or her presence.
• During infield or fly ball practice, a player, usually the catcher, assigned to catch balls for the hitting coach should be given the specific assignment of warning away anyone who comes too close.
Have you taught your players how to avoid collisions in the field? 
Collisions are usually caused by errors in judgment or lack of teamwork between fielders.
It is important to establish zones of defense to avoid collisions between players. It is particularly important when players are chasing fly or foul balls.
Once the zones are established, play situation drills should be held until these zones and patterns become familiar to the players. The responsible player should call out his/her intentions in a loud voice to warn others away. Some general rules:
• The third baseman should catch all reachable balls hit between third and the catcher.
• The first baseman should catch all reachable balls hit between second and the catcher.
• The shortstop should call all reachable balls hit behind third base.
• The second baseman should call all reachable balls hit behind first base.
• The shortstop has the responsibility for fly balls hit in the center of the diamond and in the area of second base. Since the glove of most shortstops is on the left hand, it is easier for the shortstop than the second baseman to catch fly balls over second base.
• The center fielder has the right of way in the outfield and should catch all balls that he/she can reach. Another player should take the ball if it is clear that it cannot be reached by the center fielder.
• Outfielders have priority over infielders for fly balls hit between them.
• Priorities are not so easily established on ground balls, but most managers expect base players to field all reachable ground balls. The third baseman should cut in front of the shortstop on slow hit grounders to third or short.
• The catcher is expected to field all topped and bunted balls that can be reached except when there is a force play or squeeze play at home plate.
• The Little League Playing Rules do not permit a fielder to block off a base, base line or home plate from a base runner while not in possession of the ball. This is considered “obstruction,” and the obstructed runner is entitled to at least one base beyond the base last legally touched by the runner before the obstruction. [Rules 2.00, 7.06(a)].
Have you taught your catchers safe catching techniques?
• Assuming that the catcher is wearing the required protective equipment, his/her greatest exposure is to the ungloved hand. The catcher must be taught to keep the throwing hand relaxed and situated either behind their back or behind their glove. If the hand is held behind the glove, the fingers should be kept in a cupped position, ready to trap the ball and throw it.
• The catcher should be taught to throw the mask and helmet in the direction opposite his/her approach in going for a popup.
• The catcher should be taught to keep a safe distance back, about a foot, from the swinging bat. If the catcher hinders or prevents a batter from hitting a pitch, it is considered “interference” and the batter is entitled to first base. [Rules 2.00, 6.08(c)].
Health Tips for Baseball
Here are 9 health tips compiled by Temple University Hospital that you should know to keep your players healthy and prevent injury:
• Stretching the muscles related to the activity is very important. For example, if a child is pitching, he or she should concentrate on stretching his/her arm and back muscles. If a child is catching, the focus should be on the legs and back.
• A good warm-up is just as important as stretching. A warm-up can involve light calisthenics or a short jog. This helps raise the core body temperature and prepares all of the body’s muscles for physical activity.
• Children should not be encouraged to “play through pain.” Pain is a warning sign of injury. Ignoring it can lead to greater injury.
• Swelling with pain and limitation of motion are two signs that are especially significant in children. Don’t ignore them. They may mean the child has a more serious injury than initially suspected.
• Rest is by far the most powerful therapy in youth sports injuries. Nothing helps an injury heal faster than rest.
• Children who play on more than one team are especially at risk for overuse injuries. Overuse injuries are caused by repetitive stress put on the same part of the body over and over again.
• Injuries that look like sprains in adults can be fractures in children. Children are more susceptible to fractures because their bones are still growing.
• Children’s growth spurts can make for increased risk of injury. A particularly sensitive area in a child’s body during a growth spurt is the growth plate – the area of growth in the bone. Growth plates are weak spots in a child’s body and can be the source of injury if the child is pushed beyond his/her limit athletically.
• Ice is a universal first-aid treatment for minor sports injuries. Ice controls the pain and swelling caused by common injuries such as sprains, strains, and contusions.
Teach Safe Sliding Techniques
Players, especially at the Farms and Minor League levels, need to be taught how to slide into a base both properly and safely.
At the outset, you need to understand that most, if not all, of your players will not have received any formal instruction in sliding techniques. Some of the players may even be afraid to slide. You need to tailor your instruction to your players’ level of experience.
First, explain why and when it is necessary to slide.
In Little League, sliding is used (1) to stop a player’s forward momentum at the base; (2) to avoid a tag; (3) to get back to the base; and (4) always when the play is close. In the Juniors/Seniors, sliding can also be used to break up a double play.  The Little League rules provide that any runner is out when he/she does not slide or attempt to get around a fielder who has the ball and is waiting to make the tag. [Rule 7.08(a)(3)]. Head first slides are not permitted while advancing to a base in T-Ball, Farm Ball, Minors or Majors. Any runner at these levels who slides head first while advancing is out. [Rule 7.08(a)(4)]. However, head first slides are permitted when returning to a base. [Safety Code for Little League, p. T-24].
Second, explain proper sliding technique.
Players should be taught (1) to find a comfortable side for sliding; (2) how to land; and (3) how to use a bent-leg slide to insure safety. With respect to the sliding side, if the player slides to his/her right side, he/she will usually use his/her right foot as the takeoff foot. Going to the left side, he/she should use the left foot as the takeoff foot. As takeoff occurs, the arms are thrown out or up, the upper body is extended backwards, and the feet forward, all somewhat close to parallel to the ground.
When a player lands, he/she should land on his/her buttocks with his/her head up, arms out or up for balance (never with the hands down for support), hands closed (to avoid finger injuries), and toes upward. Major League baseball players sometimes put their batting gloves in their hands or scoop up some dirt from the infield to hold to remind themselves to keep their hands closed when sliding.
The bent-leg slide, also known as a “Figure 4 slide,” is used most frequently at the Little League level and is the easiest to teach. The player tucks his left leg or right leg in a bent position and places his/her foot under the other leg, which has a slight bend to it to reduce the risk of ankle and leg injuries when sliding into the base.  From above, the player’s legs look like the number 4.
Third, run your players through a sliding drill that should be adapted to their level. At the most basic level of skill, have your players sit on the ground and alternate bending their left leg and then their right leg in the bent-leg tucked position. This will help them find the most comfortable position for sliding.
Next, place the sliding pad on the outfield grass. The pad is designed with a movable cloth sheet that is draped over the top surface of the pad. The players slide into this sheet, so place the loose end closest to your players, who should be lined up single file about 5 feet away.
Next, have each player stand on top of the sliding pad and fall into the bent-leg slide from a standing position. (Caution: Don’t have them take any steps, as yet). The player should concentrate on his/her landing and direction and getting the bent-leg tucked in underneath.
Next, have all of the players practice from a standing position with three walking steps. Players that are comfortable on either side should practice both; however, others should perfect their best side first.
Next, all players should slide with a running four-to-five step start. Eventually, work up to having them run and slide into the pad from 15 feet away. A slide usually begins about two body lengths from the base, so they should learn how far they can slide with a good, running start.
During drills, the coaches can correct any mistakes by carefully watching the position in which the player lands. Make sure he/she has the hands out or up, the body is extended with head up, one leg is bent and tucked underneath the other, and the toes are up. The player’s buttocks and calf of the bent leg should show the wear of absorbing the force of the slide; otherwise, he/she is landing incorrectly.
Advanced Sliding Techniques
Bent-Leg and Pop-Up:
As you slide, place the foot of the extended leg on the base, throw the weight forward, and raise the body in one motion. Continue running to the next base.
Bent-Leg and Hook Slide:
Slide right or left of the bag by three-to-four feet, depending on the player’s size. When approaching the base, bend the extended (top) leg back, and it will hook the bag when sliding by. Remember, the left foot hooks the bag sliding to the right, and the right foot hooks the bag sliding to the left.
Real Hook Slide:
Same landing position as previously discussed. However, both legs remain extended toward the bag. As the bag is contacted, the toe of the inside foot will hook the base, and the knee will bend at the same time. The outside foot will continue past the bag and off the ground. On the hook slide, if sliding right, hook with the left foot and leg, keeping the right leg extended and off the ground. If sliding left, hook with the right foot and leg, keeping the left leg extended and off the ground.
Keep Your Players Hydrated
When children are physically active, their muscles generate heat, thereby increasing their body temperature. As their body temperature rises, the body’s cooling mechanism - perspiration - kicks in. As a child perspires, his/her sweat evaporates, and the body is cooled.
Unfortunately, children get hotter than adults during physical activity, and their cooling mechanism is not as efficient as an adult’s. If fluids are not replaced, children can become overheated and dehydrated. This is as true in the cooler days of spring as it is in the hotter summer months. The additional clothing children wear to stay warm on cool spring evenings makes it difficult for sweat to evaporate, so the body does not cool as quickly.
During both practices and games, your players must be encouraged to drink fluids even when they don’t feel thirsty. You should schedule drink breaks every 15 to 30 minutes during practices and encourage your players to drink fluids between the innings of games.
Appropriate drinks for the dugout include water and sports drinks like Gatorade. Fruit juices, which are high in carbohydrates, may cause stomach cramps, nausea, and diarrhea when the child becomes active. 
Avoid carbonated drinks like sodas because they may decrease fluid volume and many contain caffeine, which is a diuretic and can dehydrate the body further.
Lightning Safety Procedures
While Alameda County rarely experiences thunderstorms, you must understand the risks associated with such storms and know what steps to take in the event one occurs during a practice or game.
Lightning and Its Dangers:
The average thunderstorm is 6-10 miles wide and moves at a rate of 25 miles per hour. The average lightning stroke is 5-6 miles long with up to 30 million volts at 100,000 amps flow in less than a tenth of a second. All thunderstorms produce lightning and are dangerous. In an average year, lightning kills more people in the U.S. than either tornadoes or hurricanes.
(NOAA Photo Library)
Lightning often strikes outside the area of heavy rain and may strike as far as 10 miles from any rainfall. Once the leading edge of a thunderstorm approaches to within 10 miles, you are at immediate risk due to the possibility of lightning strokes coming from the storm’s overhanging anvil cloud. This fact is the reason that many lightning deaths and injuries occur with clear skies overhead.
If you hear thunder, you are in danger. On average, the thunder from a lightning stroke can only be heard over a distance of 10 miles, depending on terrain, humidity, and background noise around you. By the time you can hear the thunder, the storm has already approached to within 10 miles. The sudden cold wind that many people use to gauge the approach of a thunderstorm is the result of down drafts and usually extends less than 3 miles from the storm’s leading edge. By the time you feel the wind, the storm can be less than 3 miles away!

22 This information is derived from Little League Baseball’s ASAP News, Vol. 10, No. 6 (November/December 2003),
a copy of which can be found online at
You can gauge the proximity of a lightning strike by counting the number of seconds between the sight of lightning and the sound of thunder that follows. Play should be halted and evacuation of the area called for when the count between the lightning flash and the sound of thunder is 30 seconds or less.
To avoid exposing players and spectators to the risk of lightning, take the following precautions:
• Postpone activities if thunderstorms are imminent. Prior to an event, check the latest forecast and, when necessary, postpone activities early to avoid being caught in a dangerous situation. Stormy weather can endanger the lives of participants, staff, and spectators.
• Keep an eye on the sky. Pay attention to weather clues that may warn of imminent danger. Look for darkening skies, flashes of lightning, or increasing wind, which may be signs of an approaching thunderstorm.
• Listen for thunder. If you hear thunder, immediately suspend the practice or game and instruct everyone to get to a safe place.
• Substantial buildings provide the best protection. Once inside, stay off corded phones and stay away from any wiring or plumbing. Avoid sheds, small or open shelters, dugouts, bleachers or grandstands. If a sturdy building is not nearby, a hard-topped metal vehicle with the windows closed will offer good protection, but avoid toughing any metal.
• Avoid open area. Stay away from trees, towers, and utility poles. Lightning tends to strike the taller objects.
• Stay away from metal bleachers, backstops, and fences. Lightning can travel long distances through metal. Do not permit players to hold any metal objects such as metal bats.
• Do not resume activities until 30 minutes after the last thunder was heard. If you feel your hair on end (indicating lightning is about to strike):
• Reduce Target Size. Crouch down on the balls of your feet, put your hands over your ears, and bend your head down. Make yourself as small a target as possible and minimize your contact with the ground.
• Do not lie flat on the ground.
What to do if someone is struck by lightning.
Most lightning strike victims can survive a lightning strike. However, medical attention may be needed immediately. Lightning victims do not carry an electrical charge, are safe to handle and need immediate medical attention.
• Call for help. Have someone call 911. Medical attention is needed as soon as possible.
• Give first-aid. Cardiac arrest is the immediate cause of death in lightning fatalities. However, some deaths can be prevented if the victim receives the proper first aid immediately. Check the victim to see that they are breathing and have a pulse and continue to monitor the victim until help arrives. Begin CPR if necessary. (See page 33 for a review of CPR). If an AED is available, use it to analyze the person’s heart rhythm and, if necessary, shock the heart to restore the natural sinus rhythm.
• If possible, move the victim to a safer place. An active thunderstorm is still dangerous. Don’t let the rescuers become victims. Lightning CAN strike the same place twice.

General Accident Prevention
PLL encourages parents and players to consider how they can incorporate safety in their thinking from the time they leave their homes to come to the games. 
Parents should be reminded repeatedly of their responsibility to:
• See that all passengers use seat belts. California law requires all vehicle occupants to be seat belted while a vehicle is in operation. Only adults and children older than 12 should sit in the front passenger seat if the car has a passenger-side airbag. Children must be secured in an appropriate child passenger restraint (safety seat or booster seat) until they are at least 6 years old or weigh at least 60 pounds. Do not carry passengers in cargo areas of vans and pick-ups.
• See that their vehicles are in safe operating condition.
• Observe all traffic signs and regulations.
• Drive defensively.
Youngsters who are walking or biking to or from the field should be reminded to:
• Not hitch rides.
• Use street or highway crossings protected by light as much as possible.
• Always walk in single file off the roadway, and on the side against the flow of traffic where there are no sidewalks.
• Wear light-colored clothing and carry a flashlight when walking along a road after dark.
• Be just as alert to the dangers of moving traffic when in a group as when alone. Do not depend on others.
• Observe bicycle safety rules.
Bicycle Safety Rules
If a child will be riding his/her bicycle to the field for practices or games, here are some
important safety tips:
• Know the route.
• Wear a properly fitted helmet.
• Complete the ABC Bike Safety Check.
Plan the safest route from your home to the field with your child, and practice riding the route together. Promote good riding skills including obeying all traffic laws, riding to the right of the road, and wearing helmets properly.
Medical research shows that 85% of a cyclist’s head injuries can be prevented by the correct use of a helmet. Your child’s helmet should fit snugly and be worn level on their head, covering the forehead. The straps should

“Bike Safety First!,” ASAP News, Vol. 9, No. 4, p. 4 (May 2002, a copy of which can be found at be comfortably snug under the chin so that the helmet stays in place. If the helmet is properly adjusted, it should not move more than an inch in any direction and the child should not be able to pull it off his/her head.
A Bike Safety Check requires the following before each ride:
• A = Air. Make sure the tires have the proper amount of air pressure. Improperly inflated tires cause wear and place the rider in danger. The required amount of pressure can be found on the side of the tire.
• B = Brakes. Make sure the brakes are in good working order. Brakes should bring the bike to a halt within a safe distance. Lever brakes should not pull closer than one-half the distance to the handlebar.
• C = Crank. The crank is the part of the bicycle where the sprocket, chain and pedals are connected. There should be no wobble or play when you move the crank arms side to side.
Have your child take a test ride on the sidewalk or in the driveway prior to leaving for the field. If the bicycle is not functioning properly, have it repaired by a qualified technician before letting your child ride.
Please remind your child not to wear a bike helmet when playing on playground equipment. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission has received reports of two strangulation deaths to children when their bike safety helmets became stuck in openings on playground equipment resulting in hanging. When a child gets off a bike, he/she should take off their helmet.

For Parents and Players at the PLL Fields
In addition to the safety procedures that have been adopted to improve safety conditions on and around the field, the PLL has developed a set of safety rules aimed at parents, players, and spectators to be observed prior to, during, and following practices and games. Please make sure you communicate these matters to your players and their parents.
• The speed limit is 5 mph in roadway and parking lots while attending any PLL function. Drivers should watch for small children around parked cars.
• No alcohol is allowed in any parking lot, field, or common areas where PLL activities occur.
• Children should not be permitted to play in the parking lots at any time.
• Use crosswalks when crossing the roadway. Always be alert for traffic.
• No profanity, please.
• Players on their way to and from games shall not swing bats or throw baseballs at any time until they reach the field area and are under the supervision of a Manager or Coach.
• No throwing or batting balls against dugouts or against the backstop.
• No throwing rocks or other objects.
• No horseplay in walkways at any time.
• No climbing fences.
• No pets off LEASH are permitted at PLL games or practices.
• Observe all posted signs. Players and spectators should be alert at all times for foul balls and errant throws.
• After each game, each team must clean up trash in the dugout and around the stands.

What is First-Aid?
As the name implies, first-aid refers to the first care given to an injured person. It is usually performed by the first person on the scene and continued until professional medical assistance arrives. At no time should anyone administering first-aid go beyond his or her capabilities. Know your limits!
If a player or spectator suffers an injury or develops a serious medical condition during a practice or game, the first decision you must make is whether to seek emergency medical care by dialing 911. If you are uncertain whether to call 911, your decision has been made for you – call 911 immediately or Pleasanton Police Dispatch at 925-931-5100.
Also, please note that the average response time on 911 calls is 5 to 7 minutes. En route, paramedics are in constant communication with the local hospital preparing them for whatever emergency action might need to be taken. You cannot do this. Therefore, never try to transport an accident victim to the hospital. Perform whatever first-aid you are capable of to stabilize the victim and wait for the paramedics to arrive.
Calling for Emergency Medical Assistance
The telephone number you dial for emergency medical assistance is dependent on whether you are placing the call from a public (or other land based) telephone or from a cell phone.
From a public phone (or other land based phone): 911
From a cell phone, a 911 call will connect you to the California Highway Patrol.
Pleasanton Police Dispatch 925-931-5100

First-Aid Kits
The PLL has equipped each Manager with a First-Aid Kit.
The kits are replenished at regular intervals by the PLL Safety Officer. Extra supplies can also be found at the snack bar. If you notice that any of the kits are missing the enumerated items, please let the Safety Officer know as soon as possible.
In addition, teams in the Seniors, Juniors, Majors and Minors that travel and play on fields outside the PLL fields should take these with you to all practices and games that take place in other communities.
Good Samaritan Immunity
California has adopted several “Good Samaritan” statutes that grant specified immunity from liability arising out of acts or omissions committed during the rendition of emergency medical care. While this discussion should not be considered legal advice and is not intended to be an exhaustive account of the scope of this immunity, a brief summary follows:

Physicians who in good faith render emergency care at the scene of an emergency cannot be held liable for damages resulting from their acts or omissions committed during the rendering of such care. [Business & Professions Code §2395]. The determination of whether the care was provided in “good faith” is a fact question as to whether the physician believed he or she was responding to an emergency situation or, instead, whether, under the circumstances, a physician acting in good faith would have reasonably concluded his or her immediate assistance was not required. Bryant v. Bakshandeh (1991) 226 Cal.App.3d 1241, 1247.
Lay Volunteers:
No person, whether or not a trained medical professional, who, in good faith and not for compensation, renders emergency care at the scene of an emergency can be held liable for damages resulting from any act or omission in connection with the rendition of that aid.
[Heath & Safety Code §1799.102].
In addition, no person who has completed a basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (“CPR”) course which complies with American Heart Association or American Red Cross standards, and who in good faith renders emergency CPR at the scene of an emergency can be held liable for damages resulting from any acts or omissions arising out of the rendition of such aid unless his or her conduct in rendering the CPR amounted to “gross negligence” or he or she rendered the CPR with the expectation of receiving payment. [Civil Code §1714.2(a), (b) & (e)]. This immunity also extends to the entity or organization that provided, supervised or sponsored the CPR training and to the instructor who gave the training (provided the instructor was properly supervised). [Civil Code §1714.2(c) & (d)]. 
Further, any person who, in good faith and not for compensation, renders emergency care or treatment by the use of an AED at the scene of an emergency is not liable for any civil damages resulting from any acts or omissions in rendering the emergency care, provided the user has not acted with gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct. [Civil Code §1714.21(c) and (f)].
Finally, those individuals who administer the “Heimlich Maneuver” or other first-aid procedures (not involving the insertion of any physical instrument or device into the mouth or throat) in attempting to remove food stuck in another person’s throat are immune from civil liability when acting in emergency situations. [Health & Safety Code §114180].
Communicable Disease Safeguards
While the risk of one player infecting another with HIV/AIDS during competition is close to non- existent, there is a remote risk that other blood borne infectious diseases, e.g., hepatitis, can be transmitted. For this reason, Little League Baseball has established certain procedures for dealing with wound treatment on the field [see Little League Playing Rules, p. 86]:
• Use gloves or other precautions to prevent skin and mucous membrane exposure when contact with blood or other body fluids is anticipated. The PLL first-aid kits found in the lock boxes at every field contain a plastic bag with nitrile (non-latex) gloves for this purpose.
• The bleeding must be stopped, the open wound covered, and if there is an excessive amount of blood on the uniform, it must be changed before the player can continue playing.
• Follow acceptable guidelines in the immediate control of bleeding and when handling bloody dressings, mouthguards, and other articles containing body fluids.
• Immediately wash your hands and other skin surfaces if they come into contact with blood or other body fluids while treating a player or other person. If you are wearing gloves, wash your hands immediately after removing them.
• Clean all contaminated surfaces and equipment with an appropriate disinfectant before competition resumes.
• Practice proper disposal procedures of any material (gauzes, sponges, towels, etc.) containing blood or other body fluids.
• Although saliva has not been implicated in HIV transmission, to minimize the need for direct contact during emergency mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, use the face masks contained in each of the PLL first-aid kits.
• Managers and Coaches with bleeding or oozing skin conditions should refrain from all direct athletic care until the condition resolves.

This section of the PLL Safety Manual is meant to serve as a refresher on the first-aid
topics that are discussed in the league’s first-aid training program.

How to Recognize a Heart Attack
A heart attack (acute myocardial infarction) occurs when a coronary artery becomes blocked, and the heart muscle is dying. The most common signs of a heart attack are:
• Uncomfortable pressure, fullness, squeezing, heaviness, or pain in the center of the chest that lasts for more than a few minutes or that goes away and comes back.
• Pain to the neck of jaw or down the left arm.
• Chest discomfort with lightheadedness, fainting, swearing, nausea or shortness of breath.
Not all warning symptoms occur in every heart attack. People who are having a heart attack may complain of vague signs or symptoms. If any symptoms occur, don’t wait.

Get help immediately. Phone 911 or Pleasanton Police Dispatch at 925-931-5100 

After you have phoned 911, have the person rest quietly and calmly. Help the person into a position that allows the easiest breathing.

How to Recognize Cardiac Arrest
When a coronary artery is blocked during a heart attack, the heart muscle is deprived of oxygen and may stop pumping blood. The heart muscle may begin to quiver in the abnormal heart rhythm called ventricular fibrillation (“VF”). This produces cardiac arrest.
The only treatment for VF is defibrillation with an automated external defibrillator (“AED”). If CPR is provided until the AED arrives, defibrillation is more likely to be successful.
A victim of cardiac arrest will have 3 red flag signs:
• No response. Victims of cardiac arrest do not respond when you speak to them or touch them. If you are alone with someone who suddenly becomes unresponsive, immediately phone 911. If a second rescuer is present, send them to call 911 while you begin CPR.
• No normal breathing. Once you discover that the victim is unresponsive and 911 has been called, begin CPR. Open the airway and look, listen, and feel for breathing. If the person in cardiac arrest does not take a normal breath when you check for breathing, you should then give the victim 2 rescue breaths.
• No signs of circulation. After you provide 2 rescue breaths to the victim, check for signs of circulation. If the heart is beating and delivering oxygen to the brain and body, the victim should react in some way (e.g., coughing, movement) after you have delivered the 2 rescue breaths. Check for signs of circulation for no more than 10 seconds. If no signs of circulation are present, begin chest compressions.

How to Perform CPR (on Adults)
The assessment and skills used in performing CPR are straightforward.
Step 1: Check response. Before performing CPR, check whether the individual is responsive by gently shaking them and asking, “Are you OK?”
Step 2: Call 911. If the person is unresponsive, phone 911 immediately or send someone else to phone 911.  Carefully place the person flat on his/her back on a firm surface. If the person is injured or you suspect an injury, move them only if necessary and turn the head, neck, and body as a unit.
Then, remember your ABCs. Airway, Breathing, Circulation.
Step 3: Open the Airway. If there is no evidence of trauma, use a head tilt-chin lift to open the airway. Tilt the head back by lifting the chin gently with one hand while pushing down on the forehead with the other hand.
Alternatively, if the victim has a possible injury to the head or neck, use the jaw thrust to open the jaw. This moves the jaw and tongue forward and opens the airway without bending the neck.
Step 4: Check for Breathing. Hold the airway open and look, listen, and feel for sounds of normal breathing. Look for the chest to rise. Listen and feel for air movement on your cheek. If the victim is not breathing normally, provide 2 slow rescue breaths (2 seconds each).

To give rescue breaths,
• Place your mouth around the victim’s mouth and pinch the nose closed;
• Continue to tilt the head and lift the chin or perform the jaw thrust;
• Give 2 slow breaths, approximately 2 seconds each;
o Be sure the victim’s chest rises each time you give a rescue breath. If the chest does not rise when you give a rescue breath, reopen the airway and try to give the rescue breaths again; If a barrier device is available, use the barrier device to provide rescue breathing. Each of the PLL first-aid boxes has a face shield or facemask for use in CPR. However, if you cannot locate one immediately, do not withhold rescue breaths because you may reduce the victim’s chance of survival.
Step 5: Check for Signs of Circulation. After you deliver 2 rescue breaths, look for signs of circulation (e.g., normal breathing, coughing or movement). Do not take more than 10 seconds to check for signs of circulation. If you are not confident that signs of circulation are present, start chest compressions.
Step 6: Begin Chest Compressions. To provide chest compressions, place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest right between the nipples. This positions the hand on the lower half of the breastbone. Place the heel of the second hand on top of the first hand.
Position your body directly over your hands. Your shoulders should be above your hands, your elbows should be straight (not bent), and you should look down on your hands.
Provide 15 compressions at a rate of about 100 compressions per minute.
Push the breastbone in 1.5 to 2 inches with each compression. Allow the chest to return to its normal shape between compressions, but leave your hands on the chest between compressions.
Step 7: Pump and Blow – Provide cycles of 15 chest compressions and 2 rescue breaths. Continue CPR with 15 chest compressions and 2 slow breaths. After approximately 1 minute of CPR, check for signs of circulation. Check for signs of circulation every few minutes. If signs of circulation return, stop chest compressions and continue to provide rescue breathing as needed (1 breath every 5 seconds).
Step 8: Recovery Position. If the victim develops signs of circulation and resumes normal breathing, place the victim in a position that will hold the airway open and continue to monitor the victim’s breathing. If there are no signs of trauma, turn the victim onto his/her side in the recovery position. If trauma has occurred, leave the victim on his back and hold the airway open using a jaw thrust as needed.

How to Perform CPR (on Children)
Step 1: Check Response. Check whether the victim is responsive by shouting, “Are you OK?” and gently tapping the victim.
Step 2: Shout for help and begin CPR. If the victim is unresponsive, shout for help and begin CPR. If someone responds to the shout, tell the responder to call 911. If you are alone, begin CPR and provide approximately 1 minute of CPR and then call 911.
The victim should be on his/her back on a firm surface. If necessary, carefully turn the victim on his back. Support the head and neck as you turn the victim. If you suspect an injury, turn the head, neck, and body as a unit.
Step 3: Open the Airway. Use a head tilt-chin lift or jaw thrust to open the airway. With the head tilt- chin lift, tile the head back by lifting the chin gently with one hand while pushing down on the forehead with the other hand. If trauma to the head or neck is suspected, lift on the angles of the jaw. This moves the jaw and tongue forward and opens the airway without bending the neck.
Step 4: Check for Breathing. Hold the airway open and look, listen, and feel to determine if the child is breathing normally. If he or she is not breathing normally, you will provide rescue breaths.
Place your ear next to the victim’s mouth and nose, turning your head to look at the chest. Look for the chest to rise and feel for air movement on your cheek.
To perform rescue breathing in a child,
• Cover the child’s mouth with your mouth while pinching the child’s nose closed;
• Give 2 slow rescue breaths (1 to 1.5 seconds for each breath);
• Be sure the child’s chest rises each time you give a rescue breath. The chest will rise if you are delivering enough air into the child’s lungs. If the chest does not rise, reopen the airway and reattempt ventilation;
• If a barrier device (face shield or face mask) is available, use it to provide rescue breathing.
Step 5: Check for Signs of Circulation. Check for signs of circulation (normal breathing, coughing or movement) in response to the 2 rescue breaths. Do not take more than 10 seconds to check for signs of circulation. If the victim has signs of circulation, chest compressions are not required. If the victim is not breathing normally but signs of circulation are present, the victim is in respiratory arrest. Continue rescue breathing (1 breath every 3 seconds).
Step 6: Begin Chest Compressions. If you are not sure there are signs of circulation, begin chest compressions. To provide chest compressions in a child:
• Find the middle of the breastbone. Place the heel of one hand on the lower half of the breastbone but not over the very bottom of the sternum;
• Maintain head tilt with your other hand (this will keep the airway open and facilitate the delivery of rescue breaths when needed);
• Do not press over the very bottom of the sternum (the xiphoid);
• To provide compressions, press the child’s chest downward about one third to one half of the depth of the chest.
• Provide compressions at a rate of approximately 100 compressions per minute. Note that this refers to the speed of compressions, not the actual number of compressions delivered per minute. You will actually provide fewer than 100 compressions per minute because you have to provide a slow rescue breath after every 5th compression.
• Release your pressure completely to allow the chest to expand after each compression, but do not remove your hand from the child’s chest.
• Give 1 slow breath after every 5 compressions.
Step 7: Pump and Blow. Provide cycles of 5 chest compressions and 1 rescue breath.
Continue CPR with 5 chest compressions and 1 slow breath.
• After providing CPR for approximately 1 minute (about 20 rescue breaths or 20 cycles of 5 compressions and 1 rescue breath; these will actually take a little longer than 1 minute), check for signs of circulation (normal breathing, coughing or movement).
• If no signs of circulation are present and no one has phoned for help, leave the victim and phone 911. If the child is small and uninjured, you may carry him or her to the telephone to activate the EMS system. After you have answered the dispatcher’s questions, resume CPR.
• Continue to provide chest compressions and rescue breathing (5 compressions and 1 rescue breath). Check for signs of circulation every few minutes. If signs of circulation return, stop chest compressions and continue rescue breathing if needed (1 breath every 3 seconds)
Heimlich Maneuver
If a child or adult is choking on a foreign body, use the Heimlich maneuver (abdominal thrusts) to relieve severe or complete obstruction of the airway caused by the object.
• Make a fist with one hand;
• Place the thumb side of the fist on the victim’s abdomen, slightly above the navel and well below the breastbone;
• Grasp the fist with the other hand and provide quick, upward thrusts into the victim’s abdomen;
• Repeat the thrusts and continue until the object is expelled or the victim becomes unresponsive.
If the obstruction is not relieved, the victim will stop breathing. When the victim becomes unresponsive and you are alone, activate the EMS system by calling 911. Then attempt CPR. If another person is present, send them to call 911 while you begin CPR. 
There are 2 reasons why CPR may be effective for the person who becomes unresponsive from choking. First, the muscles in the upper airway relax and a complete airway obstruction may become only a partial obstruction. If this occurs, you may be able to deliver rescue breaths successfully. Second, evidence indicates that chest compressions may help relieve choking.
Head Injuries
A concussion is defined as any blow to the head. A concussion can be fatal if the proper precautions are not taken. If a player receives a blow to the head, he/she should be removed from the game.
• See that victim gets adequate rest.
• Note any symptoms and see if they change within a short period of time.
• If the victim is a child, tell the parents about the injury and have them monitor the child after the game.
• Urge the parents to take the child to a doctor for further examination.
If the victim is unconscious after the blow to the head, suspect a head and/or neck injury.
DO NOT MOVE the victim. Call 911 immediately.
Signs of Head and Spine Injuries.
The following are signs and symptoms of injuries to the head and/or spine.
• Changes in consciousness.
• Severe pain or pressure in the head, neck, or back.
• Tingling or loss of sensation in the hands, fingers, feet, and toes.
• Partial or complete loss of movement of any body part.
• Unusual bumps or depressions on the head or over the spine.
• Blood or other fluids in the ears or nose.
• Heavy external bleeding of the head, neck, or back.
• Seizures.
• Impaired breathing or vision as a result of an injury.
• Nausea or vomiting.
• Persistent headache.
• Loss of balance.
• Bruising of the head, especially around the eyes and behind the ears.
General Care for Head and Spine Injuries.
In the event of any injury involving the head or spine:
• Call 911 immediately,
• Minimize movement of the head and spine.
• Maintain an open airway and check for consciousness and breathing.
• Control any external bleeding.
• Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated till paramedics arrive and take over care.
Eye Injuries
You can treat many minor eye irritations by flushing the eye, but more serious injuries require medical attention. Injuries to the eye are the most common preventable cause of blindness; so, when in doubt, err on the side of caution and call for help.
Routine Irritations (Sand, dirt, and other “foreign bodies” on the eye surface.
• Do not try to remove any “foreign body” except by flushing.
• Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the eyelids to examine or flush the eye.
• Do not touch, press or rub the eye, and do whatever you can to keep the child from touching it.
• Tilt the child’s head over a basin with the affected eye down and gently pull down the lower lid, encouraging the child to open his/her eyes as wide as possible.
• Gently pour a steady stream of lukewarm water from a pitcher across the eye.
• Flush for up to fifteen minutes, checking the eye every five minutes to see if the foreign body has been flushed out.
• Since a particle can scratch the cornea and cause an infection, the eye should be examined by a doctor if there continues to be any irritation afterwards.
• If a foreign body is not dislodged by flushing, it will probably be necessary for a trained medical practitioner to flush the eye.
Embedded Foreign Body (An object penetrates the globe of the eye).
• Call 911 immediately.
• Cover both eyes (the unaffected eye must be covered to prevent movement of the affected eye). If the object is small, use eye patches or sterile dressings for both. If the object is large, cover the injured eye with a small cup taped in place and the other eye with an eye patch or sterile dressing. The point is to keep all pressure off the globe of the eye.
• Keep the child as calm and comfortable as possible until the paramedics arrive.
Treating a “Black Eye.”
A black eye is often a minor injury, but it can also appear when there is significant eye injury or head trauma. A visit to your doctor or an eye specialist may be required to rule out serious injury, particularly if you are not certain of the cause of the black eye.
For a “simple” black eye:
• Apply cold compresses intermittently: 5 minutes to 10 minutes on, 10 minutes to 15 minutes off. If you are not at home when the injury occurs and there is no ice available, a cold soda will do to start. If you use ice, make sure it is covered with a towel or sock to protect the delicate skin on the eyelid.
• Use cold compresses for 24 to 48 hours, then switch to applying warm compresses intermittently. This will help the body reabsorb the leakage of blood and may help reduce discoloration.
• If the child is in pain, give acetaminophen (Tylenol) – not aspirin or ibuprofen, which can increase bleeding.
• Prop the child’s head with an extra pillow at night, and encourage him/her to sleep on the uninjured side of his/her face (pressure can increase swelling).
• Have the parent call the child’s doctor, who may recommend an in-depth evaluation to rule out damage to the eye. Call immediately if any of the following symptoms appear:
o Increased redness;
o Drainage from the eye
o Persistent eye pain
o Distorted vision
o Any visible abnormality of the eyeball
If the injury occurred during one of the child’s routine activities such as a sport, follow up by investing in an ounce of prevention – protective goggles or unbreakable glasses are vitally important.
Tips to Help Prevent Sports-Related Eye Injuries
• Parents must insist their children wear appropriate eye protection during sporting activities.
• Children participating in baseball or softball, considered high-risk sports for eye injuries by the American Association of Ophthalmology, should always wear appropriate sports-specific protective eyewear. The PLL encourages the use of appropriate eye protection.
• Protective lenses should be made of polycarbonate material, a material ten times more impact- resistant that other plastics and can withstand the force of a .22 caliber bullet. Polycarbonate material offers the best protection against many sports-related eye injuries.
• Contact lenses, ordinary street glasses or industrial safety eyewear (ANSI Z87.1) are not a substitute for protective eyewear. Contact lenses, ordinary glasses, and industrial safety eyewear offer no protection against eye injuries.
• Make sure the sports protective eyewear fits properly. The eyewear can be properly fitted by an ophthalmologist.
• Make sure the child wears his/her sports protective eyewear every time he/she plays. 
• In baseball, the PLL, welcomes any child to wear a helmet with a polycarbonate facemask or wire shield. Make sure baseball facemasks are approved by the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE).
• If a child sustains an eye injury, don’t try to treat it yourself. Go to the local emergency room or call your ophthalmologist immediately.
An individual who suffers a serious injury or illness is likely to develop shock. Shock is a dangerous condition and can be fatal.
Signs of Shock.
• Restlessness or irritability.
• Altered consciousness.
• Pale, cool, moist skin.
• Rapid breathing.
• Rapid pulse.
General Care for Shock.
• Call 911 immediately.
• Have the victim lie down. Helping the victim rest comfortably is important because pain can intensify the body’s stress and accelerate the progression of shock.
• Control any external bleeding.
• Help the victim maintain normal body temperature. If the victim is cool, try to cover him or her to avoid chilling.
• Try to reassure the victim.
• Elevate the legs about 12 inches unless you suspect head, neck, or back injuries or possible broken bones involving the hips or legs. If you are unsure of the victim’s condition, leave him or her lying flat.
• Do not give the victim anything to eat or drink, even though he or she is likely to be thirsty.
• Shock cannot be managed effectively by first-aid alone. A victim of shock requires advanced medical care as soon as possible.
Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke
Sweat acts like our natural air conditioner. As sweat evaporates from our skin, it cools us off.  Our personal cooling system can fail, though, if we overexert ourselves on hot and humid days. When this happens, our body heat can climb to dangerous levels. This can result in heat exhaustion or a heat stroke that is life threatening.
In July 2001, Corey Stringer, a 27-year old Pro Bowl tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, collapsed from heat stroke during an early training camp practice held during a heat spell when temperatures were in the 90’s by mid-morning. His body temperature had climbed to 108 degrees by the time he was hospitalized, and he died early the following morning from cardiac arrest brought on by multiple organ failure.
Minnesota Vikings tackle Corey Stringer died during an early training camp practice in July 2001 after suffering heat stroke. (Jim Mone/AP Photo)

In the last several years, high school and college athletes also have died of heat illness during practices in hot, humid weather. The combination of high heat and humidity can create an atmosphere where an athlete’s body cannot properly dissipate the heat, he/she generates in even normal activities.
Heat illness can also affect umpires. In late June 2002, an umpire at Busch Stadium in St. Louis had to be assisted from the field when he collapsed behind the plate during a game being played in 96-degree weather with high humidity.
The young and old are especially susceptible to heat illness, as are people who work or exercise strenuously outside for long periods during the day. This combination for young athletes demands that coaches be vigilant.
Heat Cramps
Heat cramps usually occur after strenuous exercise or an outdoor activity.
Signs of heat cramps are:
• Severe pain and cramps in the legs and abdomen.
• Faintness or dizziness.
• Weakness.
• Profuse sweating.
This condition requires immediate medical attention but is usually not life threatening.

Heat Exhaustion.
Heat exhaustion occurs when one is exposed to heat for a prolonged period of time. It takes time to develop as fluids and salt, which are vital for health, are lost as through perspiration
during exercise or other strenuous activities. It is very important to drink lots of liquids before,
during, and after exercise in hot weather.
Signs of heat exhaustion include:
• Cool, clammy, pale skin
• Sweating
• Dry mouth
• Fatigue, weakness
• Dizziness
• Headache
• Nausea, sometimes vomiting
• Muscle cramps
• Weak and rapid pulse
First Aid for Heat Exhaustion.
• Move the person to shade or a cool place.
• Have the victim lie on his/her back with their feet elevated.
• If conscious, give half a glass of water every 15 minutes.
• Get medical help.
Heat Stroke.
Heat stroke, unlike heat exhaustion, strikes suddenly, with little warning. When the body's cooling system fails, the body's temperature rises quickly. Heat stroke can be life threatening and requires immediate medical attention!
Signs of heat stroke include:
• Very high temperature (104F or higher)
• Hot, dry, red skin
• No sweating
• Deep breathing and fast pulse - then shallow breathing and weak pulse
• Dilated pupils
• Confusion, delirium, hallucinations
• Convulsions
• Loss of consciousness
Chronic medical conditions such as diabetes, use of alcohol, and vomiting or diarrhea can put children and adults at risk for a heat stroke during very hot weather. Heat stroke in children is not only due to high temperatures and humidity, but also to not drinking enough fluids.
First-Aid for Heat Stroke. Heat stroke is a medical emergency. To treat heat stroke, you must:
• Call 911 immediately.
• Move the victim to a cool place.
• Cool the victim quickly by giving a cool bath (sponging with cool water) and by fanning.
• Treat the victim for shock. (See page 41 for details.).
• Offer a conscious person half a glass of water every 15 minutes.

Tips to Prevent Heat Illness.
Heat exhaustion and heat stroke can be prevented with this advice:
• Know that once you are thirsty, you are already dehydrated. Some people perspire more than others. Those who do should drink as much fluid as they can during hot, humid days. Drink continuously during hot days, even before you are thirsty.
• Drink plenty of liquids such as water or sports drinks (Gatorade, All Sport, PowerAde) every 15 minutes (16-20 oz./hour). When you exercise, it is better to sip rather than gulp the liquids. Avoid sodas, which often contain caffeine because they increase the rate of dehydration.
• Do not exercise vigorously during the hottest times of the day. Instead, run, jog or exercise closer to sunrise or sunset. If the outside temperature is 82F or above and the humidity is high, do your activity for a shorter time.
• Wear light-weight, light colored, loose-fitting clothing, such as cotton, so sweat can evaporate. And, put on a wide-brimmed hat with vents that provides shade and allows ventilation.
• Use sunscreen to prevent sunburn, which can hinder the skin’s ability to cool itself.
• Do not stay in or leave anyone in closed, parked cars during hot weather.
• Take caution when you must be in the sun. At the first signs of heat exhaustion, get out of the sun or your body temperature will continue to rise.
• If you feel your abilities start to diminish, stop activity and try to cool off. Sit in the shade, an air-conditioned car or use ice bags or cold water to lower the body’s temperature. Drink lots of liquids, especially if your urine is a dark yellow, to replace the fluids you lose from sweating. Thirst is not a reliable sign that your body needs fluids. 
• When you exercise, it is better to sip rather than gulp the liquids.
Know the signs of heat stroke and heat exhaustion, and don't ignore them.

Broken Bones
Signs and Symptoms.
Always suspect a possible broken bone or other serious injury to a joint when the following signs are present:
• There is a significant deformity in the affected area of the body.
• There is bruising and swelling present.
• The person is unable to use the affected part of the body.
• There are bone fragments sticking out of a wound.
• If the victim felt a snap or pop at the time of injury.
• If the injured area is cold and numb.
• If the cause of the injury suggests that it may be severe.
If any of these conditions exists, call 911immediately and administer care to the victim until the paramedics arrive.

Treatment for Fractures.
Fractures need to be splinted in the position found and no pressure is to be put on the area.  Splints can be made from almost anything: rolled up magazines, twigs, bats, etc. In children, it is often impossible to determine if there is a fracture unless an x-ray of the bone is taken. If you suspect a fracture, the child should receive professional medical attention.

Treatment for Compound Fractures.
A compound fracture is one where the bones are displaced and poking through the skin. Once you have established that the victim has such a broken bone, you should call 911 immediately and control the bleeding. Then, you should comfort the victim, keep him/her warm and still, and treat the person for shock if necessary.

Tooth Injuries
Tooth injuries can be divided into three categories: fracture, luxation, and avulsion. An avulsion removes the entire tooth from its socket. A fracture typically splits the tooth into two fragments, one attached to the socket and one free. A luxation shifts the tooth position at the level of the root but does not remove it from the socket. Often these injuries occur in combination, but each requires a different approach on the field. All, however, require immediate treatment by a dentist.
Avulsion (Tooth Knocked Out Entirely).
If a player receives a blow to the mouth and an entire tooth is knocked out, place a sterile dressing directly in the space left by the tooth and tell the player to bite down on it to stop the bleeding. A dentist can successfully replant a tooth that has been knocked out if they can do so quickly and the tooth has been cared for properly.
• π Avoid trauma to the tooth while handling it. Do not handle the tooth by the root. Do not brush or scrub the tooth. Do not sterilize the tooth.
• If there is debris on the tooth, gently rinse it with water or saline.
• If the tooth is knocked out, you should store it in the following order of preference: (1) Cold whole milk is preferred, followed by cold 2% milk; (2) cold normal saline solution; (3) saline soaked gauze on ice; (4) between the player's gum and the side of cheek or under the player’s tongue, if he/she is alert; or (4) a cup of cold water.
• Time is essential. Transport the player to a dentist immediately. Reimplantation within 30 minutes has the highest rate of success. After 2 hours, the chances of saving the tooth are slim.
A fracture can be classified as a root fracture, broken tooth, or chipped tooth. If the fracture involves the pulp, which contains nerves and blood vessels and is housed in the pulp chamber and root canals, it can be very painful. Pulp involvement can be identified by a bleeding site or a pink or red dot in the middle of the dentin, which is the yellowish portion of the tooth located directly beneath the enamel.
• π Tooth fragments should be handled on their enamel surfaces and sent with the player to the dental office as described under Avulsion, above. Stabilize the portion of tooth left in the mouth by gently biting on a towel or handkerchief to control the bleeding.
• Should extreme pain occur, which occurs if the pulp nerve is exposed, limit contact with the victim’s other teeth, tongue or the air.
• A tooth can also be loosened by trauma with no visible fracture or displacement.
• This injury should also be referred to a dentist for radiological evaluation to look for tooth fracture below the gum line.
• Transport the player to the dentist immediately.

Luxation (Tooth in Socket but in Wrong Position).
There are three types of displaced tooth: extruded, laterally displaced, and intruded. All require immediate transfer to a dental office.

Extruded Tooth:
The extruded tooth appears longer than the surrounding teeth.
• Reposition the tooth in the socket using firm finger pressure.
• Stabilize the tooth by having the player gently bite on a towel or handkerchief. Transport the player to the dentist immediately.
Lateral Displacement: The laterally displaced tooth is positioned ahead of or behind the normal tooth row.
• Try to reposition the tooth using finger pressure.
• The player may require a local anesthetic to reposition the tooth; if so, stabilize the tooth by having him/her gently bite on a towel or handkerchief. 
• Transport the player to the dentist immediately.

Intruded Tooth: The intruded tooth is pushed into the gum and appears shorter than the surrounding teeth.
• DO NOTHING. Avoid any repositioning of the tooth. 
• Transport the player to the dentist immediately.

Asthma rates among children in the U.S. have increased in recent years. If one of your players suffers from asthma, their condition should be listed on their Medical Release Form. Asthma is a potentially life-threatening condition.  Asthma breathing problems usually happen in “episodes,” but the inflammation underlying asthma is continuous. An asthma episode is a series of events that result in narrowed airways. These include: swelling of the lining, tightening of the muscle, and increased secretion of mucus in the airway. The narrowed airway is responsible for the difficulty in breathing with the familiar “wheeze.”  
Asthma medications help reduce underlying inflammation in the airways and relieve or prevent symptomatic airway narrowing. Two classes of medications have been used to treat asthma – anti-inflammatory agents and rescue medicines or bronchodilators.
You should seek emergency care if a child experiences any of the following:
• The child’s wheezing or coughing does not improve after taking medicine (15- 20 minutes for most asthma medications).
• The child’s chest or neck is pulling in while struggling to breathe.
• The child has trouble walking or talking.
• The child stops playing and cannot start again.
• The child’s fingernails and/or lips turn blue or gray.
• The skin between the child’s ribs sucks in when breathing.
If you are at all uncertain of what to do in case of a breathing emergency, call 911 and the child’s parent/guardian.

Sprains and Strains
What is the difference?
A sprain is an injury to a ligament – a stretching or a tearing. One or more ligaments can be injured during a sprain. The severity of the injury will depend on the extent of injury to a single ligament (whether the tear is partial or complete) and the number of ligaments involved.
A strain is an injury to either a muscle or a tendon. Depending on the severity of the injury, a strain may be a simple overstretch of the muscle or tendon, or it can result in a partial or complete tear.

A sprain can result from a fall, a sudden twist, or a blow to the body that forces a joint out of its normal position. This can result in a tear or overstretch of the ligament supporting that joint. Typically, sprains occur when people fall and land on an outstretched arm, slide into base, land on the side of their foot, or twist a knee with the foot planted firmly on the ground.  Ankle sprains are the most common type of sprain, but the knee is another common site for this type of injury.  
The usual signs and symptoms of a sprain include pain, swelling, bruising, and loss of the ability to move and use the joint. However, these signs and symptoms can vary in intensity, depending on the severity of the sprain. Sometimes people feel a pop or tear when the injury happens.
A strain is caused by twisting or pulling a muscle or tendon. Strains can be acute or chronic.  An acute strain is caused by trauma or an injury such as a blow to the body. It can also be caused by improperly lifting heavy objects or overstressing the muscles. Chronic strains are usually the result of overuse – prolonged, repetitive movement of the muscles and tendons.
Typically, people with a strain experience pain, muscle spasm, and muscle weakness. They can also have localized swelling, cramping, or inflammation and, with a minor or moderate strain, usually some loss of muscle function. Individuals typically have pain in the injured area and general weakness of the muscle when they attempt to move it. Severe strains that partially or completely tear the muscle or tendon are often very painful and disabling.
Treatment for sprains and strains is similar and can be thought of as having two stages. The goal during the first stage is to reduce swelling and pain. At this stage, doctors usually advise patients to follow a formula of RICE– Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation – for the first 24 to 48 hours after the injury. The doctor may also recommend an over-the-counter or prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, such as aspirin or ibuprofen, to help decrease pain and inflammation.
For people with a moderate or severe sprain, particularly of the ankle, a hard cast may be applied. Severe sprains and strains may require surgery to repair the torn ligaments, muscle, or tendons. It is important that moderate and severe sprains and strains be evaluated by a doctor to allow prompt, appropriate treatment to begin.

Wound Care
Some wounds such as small cuts or minor abrasions require only simple first-aid measures.  Others, however, require immediate first-aid followed by professional medical care.
Small cuts or abrasions.
Even minor cuts and scrapes can become contaminated and infected. In order to reduce the chances of infection, you should:
• Whenever possible, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and hot water before administering first- aid. If you cannot do so, use some of the hydrogen peroxide or antibacterial wipes found in the PLL first-aid kits.
• Keep the wound and all first-aid materials as clean as possible. When opening packages of sterile pads or dressings, handle only the edges. Do not touch the area that comes in contact with the wound.
• Clean the wound and the surrounding area gently with mild soap and water and rinse it. Blot the area dry with a sterile pad or clean dressing.
• Cover the wound with an appropriate sized bandage, pad, or wrapped gauze.
• These materials are contained in the PLL first-aid kits.

Deep wounds.
A serious wound must be cleansed and treated by professional medical personnel. If a person suffers such a wound, treat the person for bleeding and shock.
• Call 911 immediately.
• To control bleeding, have the victim lie down and elevate the injured limb higher than the heart unless you suspect a broken bone.
• Apply direct pressure on the wound with a sterile pad or clean cloth.
• If the bleeding is controlled by direct pressure, bandage the wound firmly with clean cloth strips or bandages to protect the wound and prevent possible infection. Check the person’s pulse to make sure the bandage is not too tight.
• If direct pressure is ineffective, bleeding can often be controlled by applying strong finger pressure on the nearest main artery supplying blood to the affected area.
o For the scalp: Press the thumb against the bone in front of the ear. Because of extensive circulation, pressure may have to be applied to both sides of the head.
o For the face: Press the fingers against the hollow area of the jaw. Both sides may require compression.
o For the neck: Place the thumb against the back of the victim’s neck against the vertebrae. Slide three fingers to the side of the airway where the wound is located.  Locate the pulsing artery; then squeeze it toward the thumb. Do not compress both sides of the neck.
o For the chest or armpit: Press the thumb downward in the groove behind the collarbone.
o For the arm: Place the flat side of the finger in the groove between the muscles on the inner side of the arm. With your thumb on the outside of the arm, press toward the bone at a point about halfway between the shoulder and the elbow.
o For the hand: Place your thumb on the inner side of the wrist and press toward the bone.
o For the leg: At the groin area where the legs and the torso meet, press the inner thigh against the bone with your fist or the heel of your hand.

To treat a nosebleed (epistaxis), loosen the clothing around the neck area and instruct the victim to sit up with his/her head tilted forward or to lie down with his/her head and shoulders elevated.
• Instruct the victim to sit up straight and breathe through the mouth.
• If the bleeding is from the front of the nose,
o Pinch the nostrils together for 10-15 minutes.
o Place cold, wet towels or cloths over the nose and face.
o If the bleeding continues, insert a small sterile pad in one or both nostrils. Do not use cotton or anything with loose fibers. Pinch the nostrils together. If the bleeding persists, get professional medical care.
• If the bleeding is from the back of the nose, take the victim to the emergency room or get professional medical help immediately.

Bee Stings
Some individuals are highly sensitive or allergic to bee venom. If such a person is stung by a bee, wasp or yellow jacket, he/she may develop an anaphylactic reaction, which can be life threatening if not treated immediately.
• Bee sting allergies should be noted on players Medical Release Form. EpiPen should be carried and/or provided by player.
• Do not wait for allergic symptoms to appear. Call 911 immediately.
• If breathing difficulties occur, start rescue breathing techniques; if the pulse is absent, begin CPR.
• Signs of an allergic reaction may include: nausea; severe swelling; breathing difficulties; bluish face, lips and fingernails; shock or unconsciousness.
• If victim has gone into shock, treat accordingly (see “Care for Shock,” page 41).
If the person is not known to have an allergy to bee stings and does not exhibit signs of an allergic response, the treatment involves:
• Remove the stinger or venom sac by gently scraping with fingernail or business card. Do not remove the stinger with tweezers as more toxins from the stinger could be released into the victim’s body.
• For multiple stings, soak the affected area in cool water. Add one tablespoon of baking soda per quart of water.
• For mild or moderate symptoms, wash with soap and cold water.

The Snack Bar at the Pleasanton field has implemented a number of food safety handling guidelines for the 2019 season. These will be posted in the Snack Bar and should be communicated to the Team Parent of each team that will be providing individuals to work at the Snack Bar during games or League events.
Parents, Managers, and all PLL personnel are to familiarize themselves with Snack Bar procedures before working in the Snack Bar or handling food. The PLL has a Snack Bar safety program and operation meeting before the Snack Bar goes into operation each season.
Snack Bar Guidelines
• Training of all concession stand volunteers is required.
• Frequent and thorough hand washing is mandatory.
• Avoid hand contact with raw, ready-to-eat foods and food contact surfaces. Use an acceptable dispensing utensil to serve food. Use disposable gloves when possible.
• Only healthy workers should prepare and serve food.
• Do not reheat any food items.
• All utensils are to be washed in hot soapy water, rinsing in clean water.
• Discard any unusable food when the snack bar is closed.
• Foods that require refrigeration must be kept cooled and returned to the refrigerator as quickly as possible.
• Hot dogs and hamburgers must be cooked thoroughly. Burgers must be cooked frozen. Do not thaw out. Only take out the number of burgers you will be cooking. Return the uncooked burgers to the freezer.
• Keep foods stored off the floor at least six inches.
• Protocol for hand washing.
o Use soap and warm water.
o Rub your hands vigorously as you wash them.
o Wash all surfaces including the backs of hands, wrists, and between fingers and under nails.

Before You Start Your Snack Bar Shift,
Do you know:
• Where the telephone is? Pay phone? Cell phone?
• Where the fire extinguisher is?
• What the basic steps are in the event of a fire?
• What your roles are in the event of a medical emergency?
• Where the Snack Bar first-aid supplies are?
• How to safely operate all equipment?
• How to safely use cleaning chemicals?
If you don’t know, then ask!!
When to Report
Any incident that causes any player, Manager, Coach, umpire, volunteer or spectator to receive medical treatment and/or first-aid must be reported to the PLL Safety Officer. This includes active and passive treatments such as the evaluation and diagnosis of the extent of the injury or periods of rest. Basically, if you are required to take a player or other person off the field of play due to an injury, you should report the incident to the PLL Safety Officer.
How to Report
All such incidents described above must be reported to the League Safety Officer within 48 hours of the incident. The PLL Safety Officer is Kevin Duggan. He can be reached at:
Home/Cell Phone: 925-250-7602
He can also be reached by email at [email protected]
What to Report
The PLL uses the ASAP Incident/Injury Tracking Report form for tracking accident information and informing Little League Baseball, Inc.
When you call the Safety Officer, please have the information necessary to enable her to complete the report form. This will include:
• The name, address, and phone number of the individual involved.
• The date, time, and location of the incident.
• As detailed a description of the incident as possible.
• A description of what type of first-aid was rendered and by whom.
• The preliminary estimation of the extent of any injuries.
• The name and phone number of the person reporting the incident.
• An indication as to whether this incident could have been prevented.
Follow-up by the PLL Safety Officer
Within 48 hours of receiving the incident report, the Safety Officer will contact the injured party and/or the injured party’s parents and (1) verify the information received; (2) obtain any other information deemed necessary; (3) check on the status of the injured party; and (4) in the event that the injured party required other medical treatment (i.e., Emergency Room visit, doctor’s visit, etc.) will advise the parent or guardian of the PLL’s insurance coverage and the provisions for submitting any claims.
If the extent of the injuries are more than minor in nature, the PLL President will periodically call the injured party to (1) check on the status of any injuries, and (2) check if any other assistance is necessary in areas such as submission of insurance forms, etc. until such time as the incident is considered “closed” (i.e., no further claims are expected and/or the individual is participating in the League again).
Medical Release Requirements
Where any player has suffered an injury that requires medical treatment, whether or not the injury occurred while playing baseball, the player must provide the Safety Officer with a copy of a signed medical release from his/her physician authorizing them to resume play before they will be permitted to return to the field.
The following procedures apply to all of the storage sheds and lock boxes used by the 
PLL and apply to anyone who has been issued a key and access to all our facilities.
• All individuals with keys to the PLL equipment sheds or lock boxes (i.e., Managers, Coaches, Umpires, etc.) should be aware of their responsibilities for the orderly and safe storage of equipment.
• Before you use any machinery located in the shed (i.e., pitching machines, weed whackers, or other electrical equipment), please locate and read the written operating procedures for that equipment.
• All chemicals or organic materials stored in PLL sheds shall be properly marked and labeled as to contents.
• All chemicals or organic materials (i.e., lime, fertilizer, etc.) stored within these equipment sheds shall be separated from the areas used to store machinery and gardening equipment (i.e., rakes, shovels, etc.) to minimize the risk of puncturing storage containers.
• Any witnessed “loose” chemicals or organic materials within these sheds should be cleaned up and disposed of as soon as possible to prevent accidental poisoning.

2019 Forms
• 1. Expectations and
Responsibilities for Managers,

Coaches, and League Officials
• 2. Expectations Contract for
Players, Parents, and Families
• 3. Pre-Game Checklist
• 4. Safety Suggestion Form
• 5. Little League Volunteer Application
• 6. Little League Medical Release
• 7. Prevention and Emergency
Management of Youth Baseball
Injuries – a powerpoint presentation by
Dr. David Bell


• To make sure that the playing environment is safe and supportive for children learning new and improving existing baseball skills.
• To read, understand and follow all Little League rules and regulations, including those outlined in the Pleasanton Little League Safety Plan.
• To attend District coaching and/or PLL training programs offered by Little League to acquire as much knowledge as possible of baseball skills and strategies.
• To attend scheduled PLL meetings and functions as appropriate to your position.
• To bring the Little League Baseball Official Rule Book to every game.
• To have the Emergency Telephone Number wallet card in your possession at all practices and games.
• To have, in your possession at all practices and games, the players’ registration forms that list physician contact information and treatment authorization if an injury should occur.
• To make sure that emergency numbers are posted in each dugout and in each equipment box at PLL sponsored fields at all times.
• To have a fully charged cellular telephone with which to make emergency calls in your possession or confirm its availability at all practices and games.
• To be alert to potential hazards on or around the field, and to take action immediately to address those hazards, to the extent possible. The playing field must be inspected by the Manager or Coach prior to every practice and game.
• To notify the PLL Safety Officer, Kevin Duggan, within 48 hours, of any incident that causes any player, manager, coach, umpire or volunteer to receive medical treatment or first aid, per the PLL Safety Plan.
• To take immediate action if any player, Manager, Coach, umpire, official or spectator puts anyone at risk of harm or injury or inflicts injury on anyone (mental or physical), intended or not. If the Manager or Coach believes a player has intentionally injured another player during practice or a game, that player is to be immediately suspended from play until such time as the PLL Board of Directors has reviewed the incident and made a decision regarding the player.
• To file a report of any such incident to the PLL President, Peter Easton, within 24 hours.
• To enforce the Little League ban on smoking in the dugouts and on the ball fields and drinking of alcoholic beverages on park grounds.
• To supervise the care and use of all PLL equipment and uniforms and to regularly inspect the equipment to make sure that they are safe for use.
• To confirm that all players at the Senior, Junior, Major, and Minor Leagues are appropriately equipped with hard cups along with the athletic supporters required by Little League rules.
• To complete the end of the season evaluation forms.
• As a representative of the Pleasanton Little League, to be courteous, helpful, and always respectful of one’s players, umpires, and opposing teams. Model this behavior for your players and spectators.
• To be encouraging at all times of one’s own team players and those of other teams. Be positive and respect each child as an individual; strive to understand each child’s skills and abilities as well as potential, and set reasonable expectations for each child’s play.
• To be physically and mentally fit to lead and teach players at all practices and games.
• To be as organized and ready for each practice and game as possible so that the players will benefit the most from your leadership.
• To supply information as necessary to complete your background check.
• To be prepared for emergencies of any kind, as a responsible adult in charge of children.
• To assist in the clean-up of the field after every game, and when indicated, drag the field after every game and every practice.

I have read and will ascribe to the above responsibilities and expectations as a of the Pleasanton Little League,

Dated: Signed:

• to be on time for all practices and games.
• to always do their best whether in the field or on the bench.
• to be cooperative at all times and share team duties.
• to respect not only others, but themselves as well.
• to be positive with teammates at all times.
• to try not to become upset at their own mistakes or those of others ... we will all make our share this year, and we must support one another.
• to understand that winning is only important if you can accept losing, as both are important parts of any sport.
• π to let us know at least a day in advance if your child will be unable to make a practice or game.
• to pick your child up promptly after each practice and game.
• to come out and enjoy the games. Cheer to make all players feel important.
• to allow us to coach and run the team.
• to try not to question our leadership. All players will make mistakes, and so will we.
• do not holler at us, the players or the umpires. We are all responsible for setting examples for our children. If we eliminate negative comments, the children will have an opportunity to play without any unnecessary pressures and will learn the value of sportsmanship.
• if you wish to question the strategies or leadership of the coaching staff, please do not do so in front of the players or fans. Our phone numbers are available for you to call at any time if you have a concern.
• to be on time for all practices and games.
• to be as fair as possible in giving playing time to all players.
• to do our best to teach the fundamentals of the game.
• to be positive and respect each child as an individual.
• to set reasonable expectations for each child and for the season.
• to teach the players the value of winning and losing.
• to be open to ideas, suggestions or help.
• to never holler at any member of our team, the opposing team or umpires.  Any confrontation will be handled in a respectful, quiet, and dignified manner.
“The actions of players, managers, coaches, umpires and league officials must be above reproach. Any player, manager, coach, umpire or league representative who is involved in a verbal or physical altercation, or an incident of unsportsmanlike conduct, at the game site or any other Little League activity, is subject to disciplinary action by the Local League Board of Directors.” Official Regulations, Section XIV(a), Little League Baseball, Inc.

Pleasanton Little League Pre-game Checklist


Playing Field, Bases, Benches, Fences, Bleachers


Instant Ice Packs
Nitrile (Non-Latex) Gloves
Roll of Gauze
Antiseptic Wipes
Regular Strip Bandages
Extra Large Adhesive Bandages
Roll of Tape
Triangular Bandage
Bee Sting Kit
Combine Dressings (5” x 9”)
General Use Sponges (4” x 4”)
Gauze Sponges (2” x 2”)

Emergency: 911
Snack Bar 925-426-9358
Pleasanton Weather Line: 925-931-5360

Equipment &Field

Peter Easton 925-204-4628
Safety Issues: Kevin Duggan 925-250-7602

Pleasanton Little League Safety Suggestion Form
All League Officials, Managers, Coaches, Parents, Players and
interested persons are encouraged to submit any suggestions that will
make Pleasanton National Little League a safer program.
Please mail your suggestion to:

Pleasanton Little League
P.O.Box 461
Pleasanton, CA 94566
Your Name and Address are Optional
Little League Volunteer Application – please email First and last name and email to [email protected]
Little League Medical Release 

Local Sponsors

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